Import regulations and customs duties
Exports have to be recorded in the commercial register.
Romania supports the free market economy. However, some licenses are necessary following agreements with the governmental and when requiring a government credit, as well as for the goods affected by quantitative restrictions.
If the Balance of payment position is poor or if it is considered that the imported product could damage the national production, the Romanian Ministry of Trade can take measures for quantitative restrictions on import and export.
Tariffs are in accordance with the Nomenclature of harmonised system by codification and nomenclature of the goods.
Distribution is fully developing, private and specialised distribution networks are taking a relevant importance. Distribution costs are managed by retailers, who provide themselves directly in the manufactures or import stores.
Supermarkets will soon appear (not yet, due to restrictions in the financing system, in the number of banks, the weak flexibility in means of payment and the difficulties to obtain credits and currencies).
Equipment sales, technology transfer for big state-owned companies (being privatised and modernised), textile industry (important needs in raw materials and equipment) are interesting opportunities for foreign exporters. Moreover, the national market should develop, it presents an interest for investors of the car, conditioning, packaging, food and building material sectors.
The most relevant trade fair, the "Tirgul International Bucarest (TIB)", takes place once a year and is a good way to penetrate the Romanian market. The development of the Romanian economy gave way to the creation of a huge number of other trade fairs and forums, such as the TIBCO, specialised in consumer goods.
The Business to Consumer (B to C) market
The Business to Business (B to B) market
Transportation of goods
The road network extends over 73,000 km of which 21,000 km are tarred roads. The main roads cover 16,000 km of the territory but are in a bad state because of climatic conditions and the lack of management. Currently, there is only a single highway connecting Bucarest to Pitesti (96 km), but it does not comply with the European standards.
In 2000, 616 million tons of goods were transported by road transport.
The appropriate authority is the Romanian National Office of Roads and Bridges.
Several projects of rehabilitation of the road network are under study in partnership with the World Bank
, the BERD
, the BEI
, the JBIC and the European Union
These projects concern the construction of two highways: Bucarest-Pitesti and Bucarest-Constanta.
The network includes 11,430 km of lines of which 34% are electrified and 69% are simple lines. It is a very dense network, with old and winding roads due to the geography of the country which limits the speed of the trains.
The management is ensured by the National Company of Railroads
which was split into five entities to allow their possible privatisation. This authority operates under the Ministry of Transport
Several projects are in progress in partnership with the European Union and the World Bank, particularly for the modernisation of the 4 corridors connecting Romania with the Western Europe.
In 2000, 105 million tons of goods were transported through rail.
The majority of the harbour facilities are situated along the Danube, where the ports of Turnu Severin, Turnu Magurele, Giurgiu, Oltenita and Cernavoda are located. The Danube is connected by a canal with Constantine's port, in the Black Sea, which handles 90% of the foreign trade of the country. The other important port of the Black Sea is Mangalia.
In 2000, 27 million tons of goods were transported through sea.
Romania has 3 international airports, Bucharest - Otopeni
, Constance, Kogalniceanu and Timisoara
In 2000, 14,024 tons of freight were transported through the airport of Bucharest, that is an increase of 15% as compared to the previous year.
The national airline company is TAROM
, and is about to be privatised within the framework of the modernisation plan of the country's air infrastructures.
The Romanian Institute for the Ratification ( Standarizare's Romanic Institute) is the national organism of standardisation and certification.
Their aim is to harmonise the Romanian standards with the European Union ones.
Patents and brands
The State Office for Inventions and for Trademarks (OSIM) is the government organisation in charge of the recording and the protection of patents, trademarks and industrial design.
Romania signed the agreement of Paris concerning the protection of industrial property and the agreement which establishes the World Intellectual property Organisation (WIPO). In terms of patents, they ratified the Patent Law Treaty (PLT), as well as the Patent Co-operation Treaty (PCT). They signed the Madrid Agreement concerning the International Register of marks.
Texts currently applying to patents/brands
||Date entered into law
||Period of validity
Period of validity of 20 years
Period of validity of 10 years
Industrial Design Law
Period of validity of50 years
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